Kingston Historical Society
P.O. Box 54
Kingston, Ontario


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Kingston Historical Society
Kingston Historical Society, est. 1893



Chronology of the History of Kingston

Enlarged and revised by Jennifer McKendry from a chronology written for An Illustrated Guide to Monuments, Memorials & Markers (Kingston, 2000) by John H. Grenville, David C. Kasserra, Jennifer McKendry, William J. Patterson and Edward H. Storey for the Kingston Historical Society.

Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) founds Quebec, establishing the colony of New France.
Champlain travels in the Kingston area.
On 30 June the Governor of New France, Count Frontenac (1622-98), establishes a French trading post with the Iroquois at Cataraqui. .
Sieur de La Salle (1643-87) builds Fort Frontenac at Cataraqui and establishes a seigneury. From here he explores west and south as far as the Gulf of Mexico on behalf of France.
Madeleine de Roybon D’Allonne (c1646-1718) establishes a seigneury near present-day Collins Bay.
Fort Frontenac is abandoned to the Iroquois.
Fort Frontenac is reoccupied and rebuilt by the French.

Hon. René Boucher (1735-1812) is born at Fort Frontenac.
The Seven Years War between Britain and France has implications for Kingston.
General Montcalm (1712-59) uses Fort Frontenac as a base to attack and destroy the British fort at Oswego.
Lt Col Bradstreet (1711-74) leads a British force that captures Fort Frontenac and partly demolishes it.
Major Robert Rogers (1731-95) takes possession of Fort Frontenac which remains unoccupied.
British proclamation following the Peace of Paris creates the Province of Quebec.
The American Revolution gives rise to migration to Canada of those persons loyal to the British crown.
Major John Ross, commanding officer of the 2nd Battalion, The King’s Royal Regiment of New York, with a large military force occupies Cataraqui and partly rebuilds Fort Frontenac in preparation for the arrival of the loyalists.

The King's Mills consisting of both saw and grist mills are built at Kingston Mills. A number of saw and grist mills are built on the site during the 19th century.

The Crawford Purchase of First Nations lands secures most of Eastern Ontario for settlement displacing many Mississauga from traditional hunting areas.

An early land survey in Ontario is begun in the Kingston area.

Captain Michael Grass (c1732-1813) leads a party of Loyalists to Cataraqui, some of whom stay in the townsite while the majority settle in the first township, later named Kingston Township.

Molly Brant (c1736-96) and her brother Joseph Brant (1742-1807), Mohawks from New York, are granted lots as Loyalists in Kingston, but Joseph moves to Brantford with the Six Nations, some of whom settle at Deseronto.

The Rev. John Stuart (1740-1811), the first Anglican priest in Ontario, arrives at Cataraqui and establishes the first school the following year. He preaches in the first St George’s Church (see entry for 1792).

A graveyard is established at Queen and Montreal Streets. Although it is the burial grounds for persons of various denominations, the Church of England claims ownership; its present name, St Paul's Churchyard, is taken from St Paul’s (Anglican) Church built in 1845. Many early gravestones survive.

Capt Jeptha Hawley (1740-1813), Loyalist, builds his frame house (still surviving) in Bath, Ernestown (now Loyalist) Township.

Bath, a Loyalist community established in 1784 west of Kingston, is named.
The Rev. John Langhorn (1744-1817), the second Anglican priest in Ontario, ministers to the Loyalist townships west of Kingston.

Fort Frontenac is renamed Tête de Pont barracks and Cataraqui renamed King's Town, which becomes Kingston the following year.

Most ofPittsburgh Township is surveyed and opened for Loyalist settlement. The Great Cataraqui River separates this area from Kingston. See also the entries for 1829, 1850, 1866, and 1998.
A naval dockyard and base for the Provincial Marine is established at Point Frederick.
The Constitutional Act splits the Province of Quebec into Lower Canada (now Quebec) and Upper Canada (now Ontario).
The first St George’s Church is built in frame construction on King St E. between Clarence and Johnson Streets. See also entries for 1785, 1825, 1862 and 1899.

The Kingston Grammar School is established; in 1807 it becomes the Midland District Grammar School.

Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe (1752-1806) and his Executive Council are sworn-in at St George’s Church and hold their first formal meeting at Kingston.

The first stone house (demolished 1929) in Kingston is built by the Smith family on Ontario Street at Queen Street.

The frame Fairfield House (still surviving) is built by a Loyalist family west of Amherstview.
The first Masonic Lodge, Ancient St John’s No 3, is founded in Kingston.
Molly Brant (born c1736), consort of Sir William Johnson and sister of Joseph Brant, dies and is buried in St Paul’s churchyard. Her gravestone is not extant.

The Rev. Robert McDowall (1768-1841) founds the Presbyterian Church at Sandhurst, west of Kingston; he becomes the first moderator in 1820, and a founder of Queen’s University in 1840.
The Kingston market is established and continues today on the land behind the City Hall.
St Joseph’s Roman Catholic Church (demolished 1891), designed by architect F.X. Rochleau (dies 1812), is built on the corner of Bagot and William Streets. In 1808 Rochleau builds at 70-72 Princess Street what is likely the first stone building still surviving in Kingston.
The Kingston Gazette and the first printing office established in Kingston.
Bath Academy is founded, the first common school in Lennox & Addington Counties.
The War of 1812 establishes Kingston as a major military centre.
The Royal George is chased into Kingston harbour by an American fleet which is driven-off by the shore batteries.

George Okill Stuart (1776-1862) is the minister at St George’s Church from 1812 to 1862 (the year it becomes a cathedral).

Fort Henry is built on Point Henry in defence of the naval dockyard at Point Frederick. See the entry for 1832.

Sir James Lucas Yeo (1782-1818), in command of a Royal Naval detachment, arrives at the naval dockyard and proceeds to build warships in order to control Lake Ontario.

HMS St Lawrence, 112 guns, is launched, becoming the most powerful ship on the Great Lakes.
The SS Frontenac is launched just west of Bath; it is the first steamship on Lake Ontario. Henry Gildersleeve (1785-1851) arrives in Canada from Connecticut to assist in its construction. This is the beginnings of a Gildersleeve dynasty involved in shipping well into the 20th century.
The Rush-Bagot Treaty is signed demilitarizing the Great Lakes.
The Kingston Chronicle, Kingston’s second newspaper is founded.
Establishment of the Female Benevolent Society of Kingston.
Population about 2,500.
The Stone Frigate is built to store naval supplies at the Royal Naval Dockyard.

Sir Oliver Mowat (1820-1903) is born in Kingston; a member of the Liberal party, he is premier of Ontario, 1872-96, and Lieutenant Governor, 1897-1903.

St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church is built on Princess Street at Clergy, burns in 1888 and is replaced by the present building (architects Power & Son).

Charles Sangster (1822-93), a significant Canadian poet, is born at Point Frederick. A historical plaque is located near his residence at 146 Barrie Street.

Sir Alexander Campbell (1822-92), a subscription governor of the Kingston General Hospital and Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, 1887-92, is born in Kingston. He is buried in Cataraqui Cemetery in 1892.

A stone parish house for St Joseph’s Church is built and acts as a home for Bishop Macdonell (1762-1840) when he is in Kingston; in 1846 it becomes the Notre Dame Convent, a primary school, and later a secondary school for girls. Today it forms part of the Kingston Public Library on Johnson Street at Bagot Street.

Captain John Strange (1788-1840) builds his stone house on the corner of King and Barrack Streets. His grandson, Lt Col Courtlandt Strange (1867-1958), becomes a long-time president of the Kingston Historical Society.

Thomas Molson (1791-1863) opens his brewery (demolished) between West and Simcoe Streets, followed with another (demolished) further west on the lakefront in 1831. Both were sold in 1835 when Molson returned to Montreal. James Morton (see entries for 1831 and 1855) works for Molson for seven years.

The cornerstone of the present St George's Anglican Cathedral is laid. This is the first known architectural commission for Thomas Rogers (1778/82-1853). His design is altered c1840 when the front of the church is rebuilt and a new bell tower installed; this work is in turn altered by an enlargement of the structure in 1891. See also entries for 1785 and 1792.
Bishop Alexander Macdonell (1762-1840) is appointed Roman Catholic Bishop of Kingston and Regiopolis. See also entry for 1822.

The Rev. John Barclay (1796/7-1826), first minister at St Andrew's Presbyterian Church, is remembered with a large stone monument in Kingston's second graveyard, now McBurney Park.

Cataraqui Bridge is opened over the Great Cataraqui River and connects Kingston to Pittsburgh Township.
Population 3,587.

Robert Drummond (dies 1834) and James Morton (1808-64; see also entry for 1855) run a brewery, known as “Morton’s Distillery” as late as 1900. The stone brewery and distillery (owned by the City) is in use today for a variety of functions, and is known as the J.K. Tett Creativity Complex at 370 King Street West.

English-born architect Edward Horsey (1809-69) arrives in Kingston His commissions include the Frontenac County Court House of 1855, with which he is assisted by his son Henry Horsey (1830-1911). Edward Horsey is the Penitentiary Architect 1846-69.

The Rideau Canal from Kingston to Bytown (now Ottawa) is completed.

The construction in stone of a new Fort Henry, on the same site as the fort of 1813, begins following ten years of planning by two Ordnance Board commissions and four years of preparation by Royal Engineers.

Alwington House (burnt 1958) is completed as the residence for Baron Longueuil on the eastern outskirts of Portsmouth Village; it becomes Government House, the vice-regal residence of the Governor General from 1841 to 1844.

Kingston Penitentiary (“KP”) is established as the Provincial Penitentiary; it receives its first inmates in 1835 and thus becomes Canada’s oldest reform penitentiary. It is a steady source of employment for the inhabitants of Portsmouth Village, which grows around it. KP is still in use today as a federal maximum security institution.

English-born architect William Coverdale (1801-65) arrives in Kingston from south of Montreal to work at the Provincial Penitentiary from 1834 to 1846. He is City Architect from 1846 to 1865.

The British Whig begins publication as a weekly.

The Kingston Mechanics’ Institute is founded; its books are transferred to the new Kingston Public Library in 1895.

John A. Macdonald (1815-91) opens his law practice in Kingston at 171 Wellington Street, and is admitted to the Bar of Upper Canada the following year. During these years he lives at 110-112 Rideau Street.

Sir Richard Cartwright (1835-1912), the grandson of the Hon. Richard Cartwright (1759-1815, one of Kingston's first residents), is born in the Cartwright House (191 King St E.) of 1832; he becomes Minister of Trade and Commerce, 1873-78.

The Kingston General Hospital is completed but not opened due to a lack of funds. It is converted into a legislative building when Kingston becomes the capital of the united province of Canada East and Canada West, 1841-44. Extensively enlarged, it is still in use today.

Construction begins on Summerhill, the impressive villa of Archdeacon George Okill Stuart (1776-1862), son of the Rev. John Stuart (1740-1811); it becomes the first permanent building of Queen's University in 1853.

D.D. Calvin (1798-1884) begins his timber business on Garden Island; it closes in 1914.

Queen Victoria (born 1819) comes to the throne and rules until her death in 1901.

Rebellion breaks out first in Lower Canada and then in Upper Canada.

Regiopolis College is founded and its building cornerstone laid by Bishop Alexander Macdonell (1762-1840) in 1839. The college, a training school for priests and located at 123 Sydenham Street (see also entry for 1892), is closed in 1869.

During the Rebellions the local militia is concentrated in Kingston to replace the British regular troops who are sent to Lower Canada.

Lt Col Sir Richard Bonnycastle (1791-1847), Royal Engineers, is in charge of the completion of Fort Henry when the Rebellions break out; he organizes the local militia and prepares the defences of Kingston against a rebel attack.

Kingston becomes a town with Thomas Kirkpatrick (1805-70) as first mayor.
Act of Union creates the United Province of Canada uniting Upper and Lower Canada.

The first Board of Trustees of Queen’s College (granted a Royal Charter in 1841 and now known as Queen’s University) meets in St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church.

Kingston becomes the first capital of the new province, which unites Canada East (now Quebec) and Canada West (now Ontario), until early 1844.

Governor General, Lord Sydenham (1799-1841), moves into Government House (Alwington House, see entry for 1832), but dies before the end of the year and is buried in a vault under St George’s Church.

The first parliament meets in the vacant hospital (see entry for 1835); some of the members are housed in Summerhill (see entry for 1836).

Irish-born architect George Browne (1811-85) arrives in Kingston as government architect and leaves when the capital moves to Montreal early in 1844. Among his commissions are Rockwood Villa, the City Hall, and St Andrew’s Manse. This is a period of intense building activity.

Queen’s College is established by Royal Charter.

Roselawn, a country villa, is built; it later becomes the home of Sir Henry Smith, Solicitor General of Upper Canada and Speaker of the House (1851-68), and in 1974 the Donald Gordon Centre, a conference centre for Queen's University

Sir Charles Bagot (1781-1843) is appointed Governor General and moves into Government House (Alwington House, see entries for 1832 and 1841), where he dies the following year.

Queen’s College opens for classes at 67 Colborne Street.

Rockwood Villa is built (architect George Browne) for Sarah and John Cartwright (1804-45) west of Portsmouth Village; in 1856 the estate is sold for the site of an insane asylum (see entry for 1859).

Hazeldell, a country villa, is built in Portsmouth Village. From 1860 to 1865 it was John A. Macdonald's legal residence and the home of his mother, who died there, and his sisters, Louisa and Margaret, and Margaret's husband, Professor James Williamson.

John A. Macdonald is elected to the Kingston Town Council; in the same year he marries Isabella Clark (1809-57).

Architect George Browne (1811-85) designs City Hall, completed in 1844. The Shambles, an extensive market wing, burns in 1865, and is replaced by the present truncated version.

Sir Charles Metcalfe (1785-1846) arrives as Governor General.

The cornerstone of St Mark’s Anglican Church, Barriefield, is laid (architect Alfred Brunel, 1818-87); the Gothic Revival church opens in 1844.

The Commissariat Stores on Point Henry are completed, joining the Advanced Battery, built 1836, to Fort Henry.

The cornerstone of St Mary’s Roman Catholic Cathedral is laid; the building is completed in 1848, and greatly enlarged in 1889 by architect Joseph Connolly (1840-1904).

English-born artist Daniel Fowler (1810-94) settles on a farm on Amherst Island. In 1857 he resumes painting.

John A. Macdonald is elected to the House of Assembly of Upper Canada to represent Kingston.

The government of the United Province of Canada leaves Kingston for Montreal; architect George Browne leaves as well.

Kingston is incorporated as a city; John Counter (1799-1862) is first mayor.

The Oregon crisis spurs a military response in Kingston: four Martello towers (including the Murney Tower, see entry for 1925), the Market Battery in front of City Hall, and two ditch towers completing the defences of Fort Henry are built 1846-48.

Edward Horsey (1809-69) designs and builds Elizabeth Cottage in Gothic Revival style as his home and office; it is converted to a double house in 1883 by architect William Newlands (1854-1926). It is now a retirement home for women.

English-born architect John Power (1816-82) immigrates to Kingston, and designs such buildings as St George’s Hall and the Registry Office. He is City Architect from 1866 to 1882. In 1873 he forms a partnership, Power & Son, with his son Joseph Power (1848-1925).

The Kingston Gas Light Company is proposed and founded the next year; gas lamps are used until 1947. Underground contamination from coal tar used in the manufacturing of gas continues to haunt the city today in the Place d’Armes, Queen, King and Ontario Streets area.

John A. Macdonald is appointed to the Executive Council.

Kingston is connected by telegraph.

A wave of immigrants, fleeing from the Irish famine, arrive in Kingston en route to other destinations. More than 1,400 die of typhus and are buried in a common grave near the Kingston General Hospital. See also entry for 1894.
John A. and Isabella Macdonald move into Bellevue House (now a National Historic Site at 35 Centre Street), an 1840s “Italian Villa,” where his young son dies.

The first of a long series of St Lawrence canals is completed.

John A. Macdonald, after dissolving his partnership with Alexander Campbell, moves his law office to 343 King St East where, in 1854, he takes on a new partner Archibald J. Macdonell (1822-64).

John A. Macdonald moves his family from Bellevue to 180 Johnson Street where his second son, Hugh John, is born.

The British Whig begins daily publication; its direct descendant, the Kingston Whig Standard, is Canada's oldest continuous daily newspaper.

The Municipal Councils Act is passed, legislating democratic local government.

The Kingston General Hospital is incorporated.

The City of Kingston and the Townships of Kingston and Pittsburgh inaugurate the basic form of municipal government still in effect.

John Marks (1777-1872) is elected reeve of Pittsburgh Township. From then until the amalgamation with the City of Kingston on 1 January 1998 a total of 48 residents serve as reeve, 9 of whom serve as wardens of Frontenac County.

Gibbs’s detailed map of Kingston is published.

Cataraqui Cemetery, a non-denominational garden cemetery, is incorporated.

Sydenham Street Methodist (now United) Church is designed by William Coverdale (1801-65) and opened for service in 1852.

Population 11,585.

John A. Macdonald moves his family to Brock Street. With his appointment as Attorney General in 1854 he moves to Toronto, the seat of government, in 1855. He rents 194 Johnson Street, where his mother and two sisters live until 1860, as his legal Kingston residence in order to retain his Kingston constituency.

Robert Sutherland (1830-78), a Jamaican of African origin, graduates with a BA degree from Queen’s; after his death in 1878 he becomes the university's first major benefactor.

The Kingston County Grammar School (formerly the Midland District Grammar School) moves into new quarters (now Sydenham Public School); it becomes the Kingston High School in 1871.

Hillcroft, a villa designed by William Coverdale, is built for Francis Hill (1809-54), mayor of Kingston, at 26 Hillcroft Drive; later it becomes the home of Sir Alexander Campbell, a political associate of Sir John A. Macdonald.

The Kingston Observatory, the first in Ontario, is established; no longer extant.

Henry Wartman Richardson (dies 1918, son of grain merchant James Richardson, 1819/20-92), is born; Henry becomes president of the family firm from 1906 to 1918 and together with his wife, Alice Ford (1865-1931), become major benefactors of the Kingston General Hospital.

A Faculty of Medicine is established at Queen’s College (now University) and within 50 years four medical buildings are built.

John Meagher (1816-78), head of the family that founded Meagher's Distillery Limited of Montreal, one of Canada’s largest producers of liqueurs, builds a stone residence at 85 Barrack Street.

James Morton (see entries for 1824 and 1831) purchases the Ontario Foundry and builds locomotives; under a variety of owners and names the production of locomotives continues for over 100 years.

The YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association) is formed in Kingston. A purpose-built building, opened on Princess Street at Barrie Street in 1892, is in use until the mid 1950s.

St Mary’s Roman Catholic Cemetery is in use on Division Street.

The Custom House and Post Office are designed and completed three years later.

Kingston is connected to Toronto and Montreal by the Grand Trunk Railway.

The Crystal Palace (demolished) is built on Palace Road south of Bath Road as the first permanent hall in Canada for the annual display of manufactured and agricultural goods. The architect is Henry Horsey (1830-1911).

John A. Macdonald becomes Premier of the Province of Canada; that same year his wife, Isabella, dies.
The Village of Portsmouth is incorporated; a town hall is built in 1865 (architect William Coverdale). In 1952 the City of Kingston annexed Portsmouth.

The Frontenac County Court House (architect Edward Horsey) is opened, complete with jail (demolished 1973-74 along with the perimeter walls) and jailer’s house.

The Wolfe Island Township Hall is erected; architect Edward Horsey.

The first association of Canadian newspaper publishers is held in Kingston.

Rockwood Lunatic Asylum is built 1859-70 (architect William Coverdale) on the western outskirts of Portsmouth Village. It is the forerunner of the Kingston Psychiatric Hospital, built in 1959 and taken over by PCCC Mental Health Services in 2001. The future of the old stone asylum, closed since 1997 as a residence for persons with mental disabilities, is uncertain. See also entry for 2002.

John A. Macdonald moves his office to 93 Clarence Street.

In September Edward, the Prince of Wales (1841-1910), is expected to visit Kingston but does not leave his ship due to concerns about the Orange Lodge’s display of their insignia.

The Orphans’ Home is opened by the Widows' Friend Society on the corner of University Avenue and Union Street. In 1927 it was acquired by Queen's to become part of the Students’ Memorial Union (burnt 1947).

The (Anglican) Diocese of Ontario (the name refers to Lake Ontario) is established with Kingston as the See City. Just before the Diocese of Ottawa is split off in 1896, there are 113 parishes and 120 clergy. St George’s becomes a cathedral in 1862.

The 14th Battalion of Infantry is formed from a number of volunteer militia companies and in the same year is given the name The Princess of Wales’ Own Rifles in honour of the new Princess of Wales (the future Queen Alexandria). Today, known as the Princess of Wales' Own Regiment (PWOR), it continues as one of Canada's oldest serving militia units.
The Charlottetown and Quebec constitutional conferences are held; three Kingstonians are present: John A. Macdonald, Oliver Mowat, and Alexander Campbell.
James Williamson purchases Heathfield (demolished), a country house built before 1841, and leases part of it to John A. Macdonald who makes it his official residence until 1878; his sister Louisa also lives there. His other sister, Margaret Williamson, dies there in 1876.
The Fenian Raids take place; the PWOR are called out to make a show of force at Cornwall.
The Dominion of Canada is formed on 1 July; John A. Macdonald is appointed Prime Minister, a Privy Councillor, and a Knight Commander of the Bath. He also remarries.
The last British troops to be garrisoned in Kingston are withdrawn; a total of 33 British regiments have garrisoned Fort Henry since 1813.
The first units of the Permanent Force of Canada are formed with “A” Battery, Garrison Artillery, stationed in Fort Frontenac and Artillery Park.

The Kingston and Pembroke Railway is incorporated and construction begins in 1872.

The Market Battery is demolished; and on the site a park is built in 1876. In 1885 with the building of the Kingston and Pembroke Railway station, it becomes Kingston's “Inner Station” until 1961. In 1967 the area is redesigned and renamed Confederation Park.

The Kingston High School is renamed the Kingston Collegiate Institute. See also the entry for 1931.

Alexander Mackenzie (1822-92), a member of the Liberal party, becomes Canada’s Prime Minister until 1878. During this time Kingston benefits by the establishment of the Royal Military College (see entry for 1876). Mackenzie worked as a stone mason in Kingston in the 1840s.

The architectural firm of Power & Son is formed (see also the entry for 1846).

Jenny Trout (1841-1921) becomes the first woman to be licensed to practise medicine in Canada. She helps to fund the Kingston Women's Medical College.

Brosius’s bird’s-eye-view of Kingston is published.

The Military College opens on Point Frederick with 18 students; in 1878 it becomes the Royal Military College (RMC). In 1948 it becomes a tri-service institution and in 1959 achieves degree-granting status. On the occasion of RMC’s centenary the original dockyard bell is returned by St Mark’s Church, Barriefield.

Sir John A. Macdonald rents half of 79-81 Wellington Street for his sister and widowed brother-in-law.

George Monro Grant (1835-1902) is appointed principal of Queen’s College, a position he holds until his death in 1902. More than any other person Grant made Queen’s the great university it becomes, as he lays the ground work for the conversion of the Presbyterian college into the non-denominational “Queen’s University at Kingston” in 1912.

The Kingston Street Railway begins operations; the system is electrified in 1893.

Sir John A. Macdonald moves his sister and brother-in-law to 134 Earl Street, where his sister dies in 1888.

For the first time Sir John A. Macdonald loses an election in Kingston (he is elected in Victoria, BC).

Still in use today, the Grand Theatre is opened on Princess Street as Kingston’s Opera House.
A telephone system is established in Kingston.

Population 14,091.

William Newlands (1853-1926), a native of Kingston, begins his career as an architect.

The Cotton Mill commences manufacturing cotton textiles on Cataraqui Street. In 1931, it is converted for processing wool, and closes in 1966.

The Women’s Medical College of Kingston is founded and located in the City Hall. It closes its doors in 1894.
The Canadian Artillery from Kingston takes part in the Northwest Rebellion; the Princess of Wales' Own Rifles garrison Fort Henry.
The first hockey game is played in Kingston between Queen's and RMC.

An astronomical observatory (demolished 1951) is constructed at RMC.

Sir John A. Macdonald is again elected in Kingston, his legal residency is 134 Earl Street, even though he is living in “Earnscliffe” in Ottawa after 1883.

The city acquires the Kingston Water Works Company.

Electricity is introduced in Kingston.
Sir John A. Macdonald lays the cornerstone for the Kingston Dry Dock, a federal repair facility. It is leased in 1910 by the Kingston Shipbuilding Company, which builds ships until 1968. Today it is part of the Marine Museum complex on Ontario Street.
Sir John A. Macdonald is buried in Cataraqui Cemetery. The Kingston Historical Society commemorates his death by an annual ceremony at the gravesite on 6 June.

Population 19,263.

The Religious Hospitallers of St Joseph, who came to Kingston in 1847 to care for the sick and orphaned immigrants, open the Hotel Dieu hospital in the original Regiopolis College building (see entry for 1837). This hospital is slated for closure in the early 21st century.

Sir George Airey Kirkpatrick (1841-99), son of the first mayor of Kingston (see 1838), is appointed lieutenant governor of Ontario. In 1903 a fountain is dedicated to him in front of the Frontenac County Court House.

The Kingston Historical Society is founded during an era of interest in historic matters.

The School of Mining and Agriculture is founded at Queen's, the forerunner of the Faculty of Applied Science formed the next year.

The Canadian Artillery, for its efforts in 1885, becomes the Royal Canadian Field Artillery (RCA).

A monument, the Angel of Resurrection, is finally erected in 1894 to the Irish victims of the 1847-8 typhoid epidemic. Located on the grounds of the Kingston General Hospital near their common burial site, the monument is moved to St Mary's Cemetery in 1966.
A memorial statue to Sir John A. Macdonald is unveiled in City Park; the portion of City Park in the area of Murney Tower is named Macdonald Park.
A Jewish cemetery is established on Sydenham Road. See also the entry for 1910.
The South African War begins. The RCA from Kingston and the PWOR both participate; the PWOR gains the battle honour “South Africa 1900.”

After a devastating fire on 1 January, St George’s Cathedral is rebuilt by Power & Son, architects (Joseph Power, 1848-1925).

Death of Queen Victoria who has reigned since 1837. Her son Edward (born 1841) reigns until his death in 1910.

Population 17,961

The cornerstone of Fleming Hall, Queen’s University is laid. The building is named after Sir Sandford Fleming (1827-1915), first Chancellor of Queen’s from December 1879 to 1915.
A nurses’ residence (architect William Newlands) opens at the Kingston General Hospital, where nurses’ training had been conducted since 1886. Later the building is named the Ann Baillie Building.
The RCA in Fort Frontenac becomes the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery (RCHA).
The Story of Old Kingston by Agnes Maule Machar is published.

The Frontenac Club, a gentleman's club, is opened at 225 King St E. at William Street.

Population 19,000.

The city purchases the Kingston Light, Heat & Power Company.
Beth Israel Synagogue is built at 148 Queen Street, and is replaced by a new synagogue on Centre Street in 1961.
Kingstonians strongly support the war effort at home and abroad during the First World War.

The 21st Battalion, formed from a nucleus of the PWOR, is mobilized and proceeds to France in 1915. It has a magnificent war record (18 battle honours) including taking part in the battle of Vimy Ridge, where it erects a memorial cross to its fallen. It brings the cross back to Canada.

The RCHA proceeds overseas as part of the 2nd Canadian Division and takes part in 13 major battles, many in support of the British Army.

Fort Henry becomes an internment camp for enemy aliens, mostly former citizens of the Austro-Hungarian Empire who had emigrated to Canada before 1914.

The 1st Canadian Division is formed; it is the first Canadian formation into battle, suffering 52,000 casualties. It is activated during the Second World War, suffering 14,000 casualties. Since 1945 it has been twice activated as part of the Regular Army, but as of 1999 it has been removed from the Order of Battle.
The Kingston Historical Society (KHS) installs its first known plaque to the memory of the Reverend John Stuart (see entry for 1785) in St George’s Cathedral. KHS installs 27 historic plaques from 1916 to 1999.
LaSalle Causeway is opened in connection with the planned construction of the Welland Ship Canal and to make Kingston the terminus of the Great Lakes.

Women are finally allowed to vote provincially, and to vote federally the next year.

The Canadian Institute for the Blind is formed under the direction of Lt Col Edwin Albert Baker (1893-1968), who is blinded during the First World War.
The Frontenac Club erects a plaque to its ten war dead on 225 King St E. at William Street.
A time of economic prosperity.
The County of Frontenac erects a memorial window and a plaque in the Court House for those from the county who died in the First World War.

The City of Kingston renovates part of City Hall into Memorial Hall in honour of Kingston's dead in the First World War.

Population 24,000.

The RMC Memorial Arch is erected by ex-cadets to the fallen from the college beginning with the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition, 1887-90; the Arch continues as the memorial for fallen cadets for all campaigns in which cadets have served since 1876. It is designed as a Roman triumphal arch by John M. Lyle (1872-1945), a Canadian architect.
The Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire erect a Cross of Sacrifice to the fallen of the First World War in Macdonald Park; it becomes Kingston's centre of remembrance on 11 November.

Kingstonian Samuel D. Chown (1853-1933) plays an important role in the formation of the United Church of Canada.

The Kingston Historical Society opens the Murney Tower (built 1846) as a museum in early August. This function continues today.

Queen’s University opens the Students' Memorial Union, a club for male students, as its war memorial to students and faculty who fell in the First World War. After the Second World War the building is destroyed by fire and a new building erected containing a War Memorial Room with two plaques listing the over 350 fallen in both World Wars.
The Great Depression begins; life in Kingston is greatly affected during the 1930s, including a near riot at City Hall by the city’s unemployed in May 1933.

Kingston opens an airport on 4 June.

The RCHA erects a stone memorial to their fallen. In 1996 a 25-pounder gun is added to the site in recognition of the 125 anniversary of the founding of the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery, Canada’s first regular troops.

The City acquires Lake Ontario Park from the street railway company.

A grain elevator (demolished) is constructed at Little Cataraqui Bay.

The federal Prison for Women (“P4W”) is constructed and the first female inmates are admitted in 1934; scandal disturbs the prison in 1994, and it is closed in 2000.

The 21st Battalion Association erects a magnificent memorial to its 830 war dead.

The Kingston Collegiate Institute becomes the Kingston Collegiate and Vocational Institute (KCVI) with the addition of a technical and commercial teaching wing. In 1992 the school celebrates 200 years of existence as well as 100 years of being located on the same site.

A serious riot erupts in Kingston Penitentiary.

The restoration of Fort Henry begins under the direction of Ronald Way (1908-78) who originates the idea of the Fort Henry Guard. Later he is in charge of the creation of Upper Canada Village and the recreation of the Fortress of Louisbourg.

Empire Life Insurance moves to Kingston.

Fort Henry opens on 1 August as a military museum following two years of restoration as federal-provincial works project. The Fort Henry Guard, a military interpretative unit, is on parade for the first time; one year later 30 members of the Guard volunteer for military service.

Kingston celebrates “Old Home Week” (100th anniversary of its incorporation).

The Thousand Islands Bridge to the USA is opened by President Franklin Roosevelt and Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King.

King George VI and Queen Elizabeth visit Kingston.

Canada declares war on Germany on September 10; Kingstonians support the war effort at home and abroad during the Second World War.

The Alcan plant is under construction to produce rolled aluminium products. Plans for a 200-acre industrial development by Alcan-Canada Ltd, Kingston Works are unveiled in June 1972. The plant is expanded in September 2000.

The Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders (SD&G), mobilized in June, concentrate at Kingston's fair grounds; "A" Company is formed from the PWOR. For its contribution to the SD&G the PWOR is granted a badge of distinction on its Regimental Colour, in addition to the 21st Battalion’s ten battle honours.

Fort Henry again becomes an internment camp, first for aliens and then for prisoners-of-war. It does not reopen as a military museum until 1948.

Population 30,126.

André Bieler (1896-1989) organizes a conference of artists: this results in the formation of the Federation of Canadian Artists.

Du Pont (then known as Canadian Industries Ltd) begins operations in Kingston to manufacture nylon.
CKWS-AM radio station begins transmission.
A plaque is placed in Richardson’s Feed Mill to commemorate in that site in 1940 the formation of HMCS Cataraqui, Kingston’s Royal Canadian Naval Reserve Division.
A Book of Remembrance is placed in Memorial Hall listing the names of Kingstonians who served in the Second World War. Kingston's monument to them takes the form of the Kingston Community Memorial Centre erected in the fair grounds in 1950.
A time of economic prosperity, the growth of industry and the development of subdivisions such as Polson Park in 1956. The move to the suburbs continues with Calvin Park in 1962.
The Kingston Historical Society begins its annual publication of Historic Kingston.

Kingston annexes over 5,500 acres in Kingston Township, including Portsmouth Village (see also entry for 1858).

The coronation of Queen Elizabeth II takes place. See also entries for 1967 and 1973.

The Celanese Canada plant for manufacturing polyester is built at Millhaven west of Kingston.

Construction of Highway 401 in the Kingston vicinity is underway.
Population 62, the Kingston area.
The Agnes Etherington Art Centre is founded with artist André Bieler (see also entry for 1941) as its first director. It is named after Agnes Richardson Etherington (1880-1954). See also entry for 2000.

The Kingston Shopping Centre is opened in August, part of a trend (such as K-Mart in1970) to develop such self-contained malls away from the downtown, culminating in the Cataraqui Town Centre of 1982.

The portico of City Hall is removed; it is not restored until 1966.

Preston and Lamontagne’s Royal Fort Frontenac is published by the Champlain Society.

The St Lawrence Seaway is opened.

Richard Preston’s Kingston before the War of 1812 is published by the Champlain Society.

A new federal building housing the post office is opened in February on Clarence Street; architects Drever & Smith (Colin Drever, 1887-1975 and Harry P. Smith, 1905-83).

A memorial entrance to McNaughton Barracks at Canadian Forces Base, Kingston is erected to the memory of fallen members of the Corps of Royal Canadian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (today the Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Branch.)
A memorial entrance to Vimy Barracks at Canadian Forces Base, Kingston is erected to the memory of fallen members of the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals (today the Communications and Electronics Branch).
The Kingston Historical Society and the Kingston Whig-Standard publish a Catalogue of Historic Sites and Monuments of Kingston and District, a forerunner to An Illustrated Guide to Monuments, Memorials & Markers in the Kingston Area (2000).

The Sugarman Building, one of the most stylistically modern buildings at this time in Kingston, is built at 16 Brock Street (architect Ernest Cromarty). It is demolished in 1999.

The Old Stones of Kingston. Its Buildings before 1867 by Margaret Angus is published.
A stone memorial is erected in City Park to the memory of those who gave their lives in the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Commonwealth Air Forces during both World Wars.

St Lawrence College opens (and is under expansion in 2002-3).

Kingston celebrates Canada’s centennial.

Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip visit Kingston.

Bellevue House is opened to the public in May. See also the entry for 1848.

The Kingston drydock and shipyards are closed. See also the entry for 1970.
The annual CORK sailing regatta takes place in Portsmouth Harbour.

The Faculty of Education is located on the west campus of Queen’s University.

Proposals for the redevelopment of Block D, an early industrial site where locomotives were manufactured, are presented by William Teron but the site is still undeveloped today.
The first volume of Buildings of Architectural and Historic Significance appears as part of the City’s efforts to protect heritage buildings from demolition or unsympathetic alterations. By 2002 there are six volumes published, and more than 380 properties listed or designated.

Northern Telecom locates in Kingston Township.

Ground is broken for the Canada Cement Lafarge Ltd plant near Bath in September.

Elrond College, one of the tallest buildings in Kingston at this time, is opened for student housing at 401 Princess Street.

The City and Township are involved in negotiations to acquire Le Moine’s Point for a public park.

The Frontenac Historic Foundation (now the Frontenac Heritage Foundation) is founded and dedicated to the preservation of heritage buildings.

Kingston celebrates its tercentennial (see entry for 1673), which includes a visit by Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip on 27 June. A stone sundial commemorating the tercentennial is built and a time capsule is buried in Churchill Park. Despite the enthusiasm for history, there are many important losses of heritage properties (such as the Counter House of 1833 on Block D) by demolition in the 1970s.

City Hall is restored.

“Heritage Kingston,” an exhibition at the Agnes Etherington Art Centre is held June to October.

The Portsmouth Olympic Harbour Building is built for the InternationalSailing Olympics.

The Marine Museum of the Great Lakes is opened at 55 Ontario Street. See entry for 1890.

To Preserve & Defend: Essays on Kingston in the Nineteenth Century (editor, Gerald Tulchinsky) is published.

The Kingston Public Library moves into its present headquarters on Johnson Street in March; architects Sorensen & Inglis.
County of a Thousand Lakes: the History of the County of Frontenac 1673-1973 (editor Brian Rollason) appears.
Incorporation of the Cataraqui Archaeological Research Foundation to oversee the excavation of Fort Frontenac. The Foundation is active today at 370 King Street West.
Kingston celebrates the bicentennial of Loyalist settlement. See entry for 1784.

One of the earliest roads in Ontario, the Bath Road, connecting Kingston with the communities to the west along Lake Ontario to Adolphustown, is recognized in 1984 by being declared by Queen Elizabeth the Second, the Loyalist Parkway.

In the city and adjoining townships there is a population of 108,502 (51% of this is in the city itself).
William Patterson’s Lilacs and Limestone: an Illustrated History of Pittsburgh Township 1787-1987 appears.
Brian Osborne and Donald Swainson’s Kingston: Building on the Past is published.
Queen’s University celebrates its 150th anniversary. See entries for 1840 and 1841.
A stone cairn is erected at the site of the former ship-building works to the veterans of the Royal Canadian Navy and the Merchant Navy, in particular their service in the Second World War.

The Joseph S. Stauffer Library opens at Queen’s University.

A stone memorial is erected in City Park to those who served in the Far East and Pacific Theatres of War, 1941-45.

Jennifer McKendry’s With Our Past before Us: Nineteenth Century Architecture in the Kingston Area is published.

Kingston celebrates its 150th anniversary as a city. See entry for 1846.

The Whig-Standard moves from its purpose-built building of 1894 (architect Joseph Power) on King Street East to the Woollen Mill on Cataraqui Street.

On 1 January the City of Kingston (population 56,597 in 1991), Kingston Township (population 43,755), and Pittsburgh Township (population 12,890) are amalgamated into one municipality of over 110,000 persons.

Early in January the Kingston region suffers through a severe ice storm.

More than 100 years after the first monument to Irish emigrants was raised in Kingston (see 1894), the first in a new series is erected in the park at West and Ontario Streets

The Kingston Historical Society publishes An Illustrated Guide to Monuments, Memorials & Markers in the Kingston Area as a Millennium Project.

The Kingston Historical Society sponsors a website, .

The Agnes Etherington Art Centre opens its expanded quarters in May. See also entry for 1957.

The federal Prison for Women (see entry for1930) is closed. The future of the stone building is uncertain.

Cataraqui Cemetery celebrates 150 years since incorporation.

Hawthorn Cottage, built in 1866 in what was then Pittsburgh Township, is enlarged, and becomes part of the newest branch of the Kingston Frontenac Public Library.

The Kingston Historical Society inaugurates its annual dinner to celebrate the birth-date (January 11th) of Sir John A. Macdonald.

A new Seniors Centre is created in the former Portsmouth Public School on Francis Street.

The Providence Continuing Care Centre (PCCC) Mental Health Services takes over the Kingston Psychiatric Hospital in March (see entries for 1842, 1859, and 2002).

Planning continues for the redevelopment of hospital services in the Kingston region, in particular the creation of a new ambulatory hospital on the site once owned by the Cartwright family (see the entry for 1842) and then by the Kingston Psychiatric Hospital (see entry for 1859). This scheme involves proposed closures of the Hotel Dieu hospital and St Mary’s of the Lake Hospital.
Planning continues for “Block D” on Ontario Street. See entry for 1970.